Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is an emotional and physical change that women go through before menstruation.
There is no particular time for PMS. It can start anytime from the time of ovulation until menstruation.
Almost 80-90% of women experience PMS in their lifetime. In most instances, mild to moderate l of disturbances will not affect daily life. However, the severe condition is called Premenstrual Dystrophic Disorder (PMDD). It is challenging to self-handle this condition and typically requires medical intervention.Â
The exact reason for PMS is yet unknown. However, reproductive hormonal changes and serotonin influences have found to be associated with it. A low level of serotonin (a hormone present in the brain and gut) affects the mood, emotions, and thoughts.
Risk factors for premenstrual syndrome
Anyone can get PMS, but certain risk factors can certainly trigger PMS. These include:
Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome
It is not like everyone will experience all the symptoms all the time. Two or three symptoms out of the following might be experienced in a month. Also, the symptoms for PMS are many, but the most common symptoms include:
These symptoms can also be due to underlying depression and anxiety disorders. And sometimes, it can also start in premenopausal females.
Women can have superimposed premenstrual syndrome over depression and anxiety disorders.Â
The severity of PMS varies from person to person. Depending on your endurance level, you will have to decide to seek medical advice.Â
How to diagnose PMS?
. There is a pattern of symptoms that a woman notices:
How to manage premenstrual syndrome?
There is no exact cure for PMS. However, it is possible to reduce the severity of the symptoms by adapting to a few changes in life. These include:
You may seek medical support if your symptoms are unbearable and affect your daily routine. Apart from lifestyle corrections, you may be advised with stress management classes or with antidepressant medications or hormonal medications depending on your condition's severity.Â
Thus, a healthy lifestyle and a comprehensive treatment plan can reduce and control the symptoms of PMS and PMDD in most women.Â
Special thanks to Dr. Ragini Agrawal (MS, FICOG, FICMCH) for the expert advice.